Heart Attack

Understanding Heart attack

  • The heart muscle requires a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood to nourish it.
  • Heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can’t get oxygen.
  • And if blood flow isn’t work fast, the section of heart muscle begins to die.
  • The coronary arteries provide the heart with this critical blood supply for body to function and in case of coronary artery disease, those arteries become narrow and blood cannot flow the way it should flow.
  • So called fatty matter, calcium, proteins, and inflammatory cells build up within the arteries to form plaques of different sizes.
  • The plaque deposits are hard on the outside and soft and mushy on the inside. this creates heart attack.

Symptoms of Heart attack

  • Heart attacks can start slowly and cause only mild pain or discomfort. it can be mild or more intense and sudden. pain and discomfort may come and go over several hours. its a common symptom for both man and woman.
  • Women are more likely to have shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, unusual tiredness as well as pain in the back, shoulders, and jaw.
  • During meal feeling of fullness, indigestion, or choke feeling like heartburn.
  • Sweating, nausea, vomiting, or dizziness are also most common symptoms.
  • One will have extreme weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath.
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeats, which one can keep monitoring at home also.
  • remember that chest pain or discomfort that doesn't go away or changes from its usual pattern can be a sign of a heart attack.
  • Excess of cold sweating.
  • Doctors believed and seen that people with diabetes, and/or those over the age of 75 may experience a "silent heart attack", one with no pain at all. Painless heart attacks are more common among women than men.

What should I do in case of Heart attack?

  • Always keep your family doctor as well as hospital number on speed dial list so that immediately you or anybody around you can call your doctor.
  • Keep in mind that chest discomfort can be described in many ways as it can occur in the chest or in the arms, back, or jaw. If one can see symptoms mentioned above, take notice. These are the heart disease warning signs.
  • Best time to treat a heart attack is within one to two hours of the first onset of symptoms.
  • As if you wait longer it increases the damage to the heart and reduces the chances of survival.
  • Quick treatment to open the blocked artery is essential to lessen the amount of damage.

First Aid

If an adult is unconscious and not breathing, you’ll need to do CPR (which is short for cardiopulmonary resuscitation).

  • Step 1: Open the airways like place one hand on the patient's forehead and two fingers under their chin. Gently tilt their head back and lift the chin.
  • Step 2: Check the breathing by maintaining the head tilt and chin lift, and look for chest movement. Try to listen for the sounds of normal breathing and see if you can feel their breaths on your cheek.
  • Step 3: Call the Doctor immediately and start CPR.
  • Step 4: Kneel down beside the casualty on the floor level with their chest.
  • Step 5: Place the heel of one hand towards the end of their breastbone, in the center of their chest.
  • Step 6: Place the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand and interlock your fingers, making sure you keep the fingers off the ribs.
  • Step 7: Lean over the casualty, with your arms straight, pressing down vertically on the breastbone, and press the chest down by 5-6 cm softly.
  • Step 8: Release the pressure without removing your hands from their chest. Allow the chest to come back up fully – this is one compression.
  • Step 9: Repeat 30 times, at a rate of about twice a second.

  • Step 10: Press the nose of the patient firmly closed.
  • Step 11: Take a deep breath and seal your lips around their mouth.
  • Step 12: Blow into the mouth until the chest rises which shows air u blowing is going inside.
  • Step 13: Remove your mouth and allow the chest to fall to normal level.
  • Step 14: Repeat 1 more and carry on giving 30 chest compression followed by two rescue breaths for as long as you can or keep doing till help arrives.

Causes of Heart attack

The most common possible factors associated with increased risk of heart attack are:-

Age factor  

  • When a man is over 45 years, and a woman is over 55 years of age, their risk of having a heart attack starts to rise significantly.
  • Accumulation of fatty deposits on the eyelids and baldness are associated with a higher risk of developing heart disease as well as heart attack.

 ♥ Diabetes

  • People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing several diseases and conditions, many of them contribute to a higher risk of heart attack.


High Cholesterol  

  • If one has high blood cholesterol level, he/she runs a higher risk of developing blood clots in the arteries.
  • Blood clots can block the supply of blood to the heart muscle and can cause a heart attack.


  • Heart attack risks are higher in a person who consumes large quantities of animal fats, or saturated fats, junk foods, untimely consumption of food.
  • Overweight people have more chances to get Heart attack. So check your BMI regularly.

♥ Angina

  • Angina is an illness when less oxygen reaches the patient's heart as required in actual.
  • The main difference between a heart attack and angina is that the patient with angina will feel better about 15 to 30 minutes after taking medication, while the heart attack patient won't.

♥ Smoking

  • People who smoke heavily or daily will have a higher risk of heart attack.
  • Now a days pollution also adding to smoking and increases the risk of heart attack in non smokers or passive smokers also.

♥ Work stress

  • In corporate world where work is on high priority and competion is high, it leads to increase in stress.
  • With stress we not able to give our body rest properly physically and mentally which leads to higher risk of heart attack as compared to person with less stress.

♥ HIV positive

  • Studies shows people who are HIV positive have a 50% higher risk of heart attack.
  • One should not hide it as HIV is curable if detected on time.



  • Hypertension is high blood pressure which could be due to lack of physical activity, overweight/obesity, diabetes, genes, and many other factors.
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